Macros

Special text strings expand on the fly to display information, or trigger a function.

Macros are text strings in one of three basic forms:

%MACRONAME%
%MACRONAME{ parameter="value" }%
%MACRONAME{
  param1="value "
        +"& more "
  param2="whatever"
  param1+="and even more"
}%

The third form is a new feature in Foswiki 2.1 to significantly improve readability with complex macros, see Readable Macros for details.

These usually expand into content when a topic is rendered for viewing. There are two types of macros:
  1. Preference settings: May be defined and modified by the user
  2. Registered macros: Defined by the system or by Plugins (for example, the SpreadSheetPlugin introduces a %CALC{}% macro)

Using Macros

To use a macro type its name. For example,

Note:
  • To leave a macro unexpanded, precede it with an exclamation mark, e.g. type !%TOPIC% to get %TOPIC%
    • Alternatively, insert a <nop> anywhere in the macro, Eg. %<nop>TOPIC%
  • Macros are expanded relative to the topic they are used in, not the topic they are defined in
  • Type %ALLVARIABLES% to get a full listing of all macros defined for a particular topic
  • If a macro is not defined, then it will be left in the text unless it is called with a default parameter, in which case the value of the default parameter will replace the macro call in the output. For example, %UNDEFINED{default="blank"}% will expand to blank.

Order of expansion

The following describes only these types of macros:
  • Preference settings
  • Most macros provided by plugins (notable exceptions include CALC, TABLE and any other macros that are expanded in commonTagsHandler())
  • Most built-in Foswiki macros (exceptions include TOC and macros that have start/stop parts e.g: STARTSECTION/ENDSECTION, STARTINCLUDE/STOPINCLUDE)

Standard form

The key to understanding nested expressions in Foswiki is to understand that macros are expanded "inside-out, left-to-right". Example:

%MACRO1{
   something="%MACRO2{
      somethingelse="%MACRO3%, %MACRO4%"
   }%"
}%
The macros are expanded in this order: MACRO3, MACRO4, MACRO2, MACRO1.

Step-by-Step Example

Step 1

%INCLUDE{
    "%QUERY{
        "'%THETOPIC%'/%THEFIELD%"
    }%"
    section="Summary"
}%
   * Set THETOPIC = %SYSTEMWEB%.FAQWhatIsWikiWiki
   * Set THEFIELD = TopicClassification

Step 2

%INCLUDE{
    "%QUERY{
        "'%SYSTEMWEB%.FAQWhatIsWikiWiki'/%THEFIELD%"
    }%"
    section="Summary"
}%
   * Set THETOPIC = %SYSTEMWEB%.FAQWhatIsWikiWiki
   * Set THEFIELD = TopicClassification

Step 3

%INCLUDE{
    "%QUERY{
        "'%SYSTEMWEB%.FAQWhatIsWikiWiki'/TopicClassification"
    }%"
    section="Summary"
}%
   * Set THETOPIC = %SYSTEMWEB%.FAQWhatIsWikiWiki
   * Set THEFIELD = TopicClassification

Step 4

%INCLUDE{
    "%QUERY{
        "'System.FAQWhatIsWikiWiki'/TopicClassification"
    }%"
    section="Summary"
}%
   * Set THETOPIC = %SYSTEMWEB%.FAQWhatIsWikiWiki
   * Set THEFIELD = TopicClassification

Step 5

%INCLUDE{
    "FrequentlyAskedQuestion"
    section="Summary"
}%
   * Set THETOPIC = %SYSTEMWEB%.FAQWhatIsWikiWiki
   * Set THEFIELD = TopicClassification

Step 6


These topics are for frequently
asked questions including answers.

   * Set THETOPIC = %SYSTEMWEB%.FAQWhatIsWikiWiki
   * Set THEFIELD = TopicClassification

Step 7


These topics are for frequently
asked questions including answers.

   * Set THETOPIC = System.FAQWhatIsWikiWiki
   * Set THEFIELD = TopicClassification

Delayed form

Standard form macros can nearly always be used to build the parameter string of another macro; however, sometimes it is desirable to bypass the inside-out expansion order and delay the inner macro until after the outer macro has finished expansion. This is accomplished by using the $percent format token instead of %, and escaping any " character it uses (becomes \")

TIP When working with a given macro, consult its documentation to determine which parameters support the $percent/$percnt format tokens. Generally only output parameters like header, format and footer support format tokens.
Example:
%MACRO1{
   format="$percentMACRO2{
      format=\"%MACRO3%, %MACRO4%\"
   }$percent"
}%
The macros are expanded in this order: MACRO3, MACRO4, MACRO1, MACRO2.

Step-by-Step Example

From the conditional output example:

Step 1

%SEARCH{
  "info.date >= d2n('2009-01-01') AND info.date <= d2n('2009-12-31')"
  type="query"
  limit="2"
  nonoise="on"
  format="   * $percentICON{
    \"$percentIF{
      \"'$topic'/parent.name='%PARENT%'\"
      then=\"info\" else=\"gear\"
    }$percent\"
  }$percent [[$topic]]"
}%
----
   * Set PARENT = UserDocumentationCategory

Step 2

%SEARCH{
  "info.date >= d2n('2009-01-01') AND info.date <= d2n('2009-12-31')"
  type="query"
  limit="2"
  nonoise="on"
  format="   * $percentICON{
    \"$percentIF{
      \"'$topic'/parent.name='UserDocumentationCategory'\"
      then=\"info\" else=\"gear\"
    }$percent\"
  }$percent [[$topic]]"
}%
----
   * Set PARENT = UserDocumentationCategory

Step 3

processing
%STARTSECTION{"step3"}%
<pre class="tml">
%SEARCH{
  "info.date >= d2n('2009-01-01') AND info.date <= d2n('2009-12-31')"
  type="query"
  limit="2"
  nonoise="on"
  format="   * $percent<nop>ICON{
    \"$percent<nop>IF{
      \"'$topic'/parent.name='UserDocumentationCategory'\"
      then=\"info\" else=\"gear\"
    }$percent\"
  }$percent [[$topic]]"
}%
----
   * Set PARENT = UserDocumentationCategory
</pre>
%ENDSECTION{"step3"}%

Step 4

processing
%STARTSECTION{"step4"}%
<pre class="tml">
%SEARCH{
  "info.date >= d2n('2009-01-01') AND info.date <= d2n('2009-12-31')"
  type="query"
  limit="2"
  nonoise="on"
  format="   * $percent<nop>ICON{
    \"$percentIF{
      \"'$topic'/parent.name='UserDocumentationCategory'\"
      then=\"info\" else=\"gear\"
    }$percent\"
  }$percent [[$topic]]"
}%
----
   * Set PARENT = UserDocumentationCategory
</pre>
%ENDSECTION{"step4"}%

Step 5

processing
%STARTSECTION{"step5"}%
<pre class="tml">
%SEARCH{
  "info.date >= d2n('2009-01-01') AND info.date <= d2n('2009-12-31')"
  type="query"
  limit="2"
  nonoise="on"
  format="   * &lt;img src=\"$percentICONURL{
    \"$percentIF{
      \"'$topic'/parent.name='UserDocumentationCategory'\"
      then=\"info\" else=\"gear\"
    }$percent\"
  }$percent\"/&gt; [[$topic]]"
}%
----
   * Set PARENT = UserDocumentationCategory
</pre>
%ENDSECTION{"step5"}%

See also: FormattedSearch

Macro Names

Macro names must start with an ASCII letter. The following characters can be ASCII letters, numbers and the underscore '_'. Letters may be upper or lower-case, E.g. %MYVAR%, %MyVar%, %My2ndVar%, and %My_Var% are all separate, valid macro names (macros are case sensitive - %MyVAR% and %MYVAR% are not the same).

By convention all settings, predefined macros and macros registered by plugins are always UPPER-CASE.

Preference Settings

A preference setting lets you define a simple macro that will be expanded in your output.

A preference setting looks like this:

[multiple of 3 spaces] * [space] Set [space] MACRONAME [space] = [space] value

Example:

   * Set WEBBGCOLOR = #FFFFC0
Macros defined using preference settings are expanded by enclosing their name in percent signs. So when you write %WEBBGCOLOR%, it gets expanded to #B9DAFF

A preference macro is always taken from the most current topic revision, even when accessing previous revisions of a topic.

Preferences can be defined in a number of places:
  1. DefaultPreferences (Foswiki upgrades overwrite this topic)
  2. In (some) plugin documentation topics. (Deprecated)
  3. SitePreferences
  4. In user topics, if the user has one (yours is Main.WikiGuest)
  5. WebPreferences in each web.
  6. Sub-webs inherit the WebPreferences of their parent
  7. In the topic being accessed
In this list, Set statements which occur at numerically higher locations override macros of the same name defined at lower numbered levels, unless the macro was listed in a finalpreferences setting (finalised) at a lower-numbered level. in this case, the macro is locked to the value at that level; set statements at higher-numbered levels are ignored.

prefs-stack.jpg

Writing preference settings

Preference settings are written as a simple bullet. In TopicMarkupLanguage they are written as 3-spaces,asterisk,equals,value
   * Set MYSETTING = My setting value

When using the Wysiwyg editor, click the "Bullet" button and write the setting as a simple bullet. Don't include the asterisk.

Spaces between the = sign and the value will be ignored. You can split a value over several lines by indenting following lines with spaces - as long as you don't try to use * as the first character on the following line.

Example:
   * Set MACRONAME = value starts here
     and continues here

Whatever you include in your macro will be expanded on display, exactly as if it had been entered directly (though see Parameters, below).

Example: Create a custom logo macro
  • To place a logo anywhere in a web by typing %MYLOGO%, define the preference settings in the web's WebPreferences topic, and upload a logo file, ex: mylogo.gif. You can upload by attaching the file to WebPreferences, or, to avoid clutter, to any other topic in the same web, e.g. LogoTopic. Sample preference setting in WebPreferences:
   * Set MYLOGO = %PUBURL%/%WEB%/LogoTopic/mylogo.gif

Preference settings are case sensitive. (Foswiki by convention always writes settings in upper case.)

   * Set lower = This is LOWER
   * Set LOWER = This is UPPER
   * Set LoWeR = This is MIXED
Expand %lower%, %LOWER% and %LoWeR%
Expand %lower%, %LOWER% and %LoWeR%.

IDEA! preference settings can easily be disabled with a # sign. Example:
   * #Set DENYWEBCHANGE = %USERSWEB%.UnknownUser

Hiding preference settings

IDEA! You can hide preference settings in the output by enclosing them in HTML comments; for example,
<!--
   * Set HIDDEN = This will be invisible in the output
-->

You can also set preference settings in a topic by clicking the link Edit topic preference settings under More topic actions. Preferences set in this manner are known as 'meta' preferences and are not visible in the topic text, but take effect nevertheless.

ALERT! Caution If your topic will be used in an INCLUDE, it is recommended to not use HTML comments. instead, set preferences into the topic metadata by using the "Edit Settings for this topic" button on the "More topic actions" page. Settings in an included topic are always ignored, but nested comments will break the HTML.

Order of preference settings

If you are setting a preference and using it in the same topic, note that Foswiki reads all the preference settings from the saved version of the topic before it displays anything. This means you can use a setting anywhere in the topic, even if you set it at the very end. But beware: it also means that if you change the setting of a macro you are using in the same topic, Preview will show the wrong thing, and you must Save the topic to see it correctly.

Preference settings and topic revision history

Foswiki always reads the settings from the most current topic revision, so viewing older revisions of a topic can show unexpected results.

And especially important, preference settings are never overridden or set in "%INCLUDE{" topics. in the below example about weather conditions, note the difference in the CONDITIONS expansion

Parameters

Note that %CONDITIONS% expands differently when this example is viewed in PreferenceSettings. This is because Set statement are not active in included topics. The including topic's set statements are used.

Macros defined using preference settings can take parameters. These are symbols passed in the call to the macro to define local macros that will be expanded in the output. For example,
   * Set CONDITIONS = According to [[%BASETOPIC%]] the %WHAT% is %STATE% today (Set in ...).
You can call this macro passing in values for WHAT and STATE. For example:
  • %CONDITIONS{WHAT="sea" STATE="choppy"}%
    • expands to According to Macros, The sea is choppy today. (Set in Macros)..

Parameter defaults

  • The special parameter name DEFAULT gets the value of any unnamed parameter in the macro call.
  • Parameter macros can accept a default parameter so that they expand to something even when a value isn't passed for them in the call.
Example:
   * Set WEATHER = It's %DEFAULT{default="raining"}%.
  • %WEATHER% expands to It's raining.
  • %WEATHER{"sunny"}% expands to It's sunny.
The standard formatting tokens can be used in parameters. They will be expanded immediately when the macro is instantiated.

ALERT! Note that parameters override all other macros, including system defined macros, in the expansion of the macro where they are used.

Access Control Settings

These are special types of preference settings to control access to content. AccessControl explains these security settings in detail. Parameters are not available in access control settings.

Local values for preferences

Certain topics (user, plugin, web, site and default preferences topics) have a problem; macros defined in those topics can have two meanings. For example, consider a user topic. A user may want to use a double-height edit box when they are editing their home topic - but only when editing their home topic. The rest of the time, they want to have a normal edit box. This separation is achieved using Local in place of Set in the macro definition. For example, if the user sets the following in their home topic:
   * Set EDITBOXHEIGHT = 10
   * Local EDITBOXHEIGHT = 20
Then, when they are editing any other topic, they will get a 10 high edit box. However, when they are editing their home topic they will get a 20 high edit box. Local can be used wherever a preference needs to take a different value depending on where the current operation is being performed.

Use this powerful feature with great care! %ALLVARIABLES% can be used to get a listing of the values of all macros in their evaluation order, so you can see macro scope if you get confused.

Deprecation warning. The setting used in this example, EDITBOXHEIGHT, is being deprecated and will be removed from Foswiki 2.0 Note that if the edit box size is changed using the javascript controls in the lower right corner of the edit box window, those settings will be used, and the EDITBOX* settings will be ignored.

Predefined Macros

Most predefined macros return values that were either set in the configuration when Foswiki was installed, or taken from server info (such as current username, or date and time). Some, like %SEARCH%, are powerful and general tools.

ALERT! Predefined macros can be overridden by preference settings (except TOPIC and WEB)

ALERT! Plugins may extend the set of predefined macros (see individual Plugins topics for details)

TIP Take the time to thoroughly read through ALL preference macros. If you actively configure your site, review macros periodically. They cover a wide range of functions, and it can be easy to miss the one perfect macro for something you have in mind. For example, see %BASETOPIC%, %INCLUDE%, and the mighty %SEARCH%.

See MacrosQuickReference for a complete list of predefined macros in your installation.

Readable Macros

Some macros can become quite complex and, as such, hard to read. Over the years changes have been made to make this easier. For some time it has been possible to break a macro over multiple lines. Nonetheless, each parameter can easily extend onto many lines (it can after all be another macro). In general Foswiki allows lines to be continued by ending a line with a \ character. This is generally useful but with macros you need precise control of spaces which \ does not give you.

From Foswiki 2.1 it's now possible to use the following in macros to make them much more readable:
  • parameter="value" +"more" +"and more"
  • param1+="value1" param2+="value2" param1+="more1" param2+="more2"

Once upon a time in the early days of the project the parameters to SEARCH would need to be written as one line of TML, an example from an active Foswiki site:
type="query" nonoise="on" web="Batch" header="|*Batch Code*|*Batch Value*|*Currencies*|*Sizes*|*Count*|*To Queue*|*Killed*|*Ignored*|*Errors*|*Notes*|*History*|*Flow*|" format="| [[$topic][$formfield(BatchCode) $formfield(BatchDate) $formfield(BatchNumber) $formfield(BatchLocation)]]"}$percnt | $formfield(BatchValue) | $formfield(BatchCurrencies) | $formfield(BatchSizes) | $formfield(BatchCount) | $formfield(BatchToQueue) | $formfield(BatchKilled) | $formfield(BatchIgnored) | <div style='background-color:#$percntCALC{$SET(dat,$formfield(BatchDate))$SET(pdat,$formfield(BatchProcessDate))$SET(age,$EVAL($percnt$formfield(BatchCode)_days$percnt))$IF($EXACT($percntWORKFLOWSTATE{\"$topic\"}$percnt,CHECKED),FAF0D4,$IF($GET(age)>=0,ff3300,$IF($GET(age)>=-2,ff9933,66cc33)))}$percnt'>$formfield(BatchErrors)&nbsp;</div> | $formfield(BatchOperators) | $formfield(BatchActivities) | <form name=\"Edit\" action=\"%SCRIPTURLPATH{edit}%/%WEB%/\"> <input type=\"hidden\" name=\"action\" value=\"form\"/> <input type=\"hidden\" name=\"topic\" value=\"$topic\"/> <input type=\"hidden\" name=\"redirectto\" value=\"%TOPIC%?%QUERYSTRING{encode="url"}%\"/> <input type=\"image\" src=\"%ICONURL{pencil}%\" alt=\"Edit Form\" /> </form> $formfield(BatchNotes) | $percntWORKFLOWHISTORY{\"$topic\"}$percnt | $percntWORKFLOWTRANSITION{\"$topic\" redirectto=\"%TOPIC%?%QUERYSTRING{encode="url"}%\"}$percnt |"

That is very hard to read and debug, and even harder to maintain months or years later and for readability this example excludes the complex and many line search parameter.

Now, we can improve that by splitting each parameter onto a separate line:
  type="query"
  nonoise="on"
  web="Batch"
  header="|*Batch Code*|*Batch Value*|*Currencies*|*Sizes*|*Count*|*To Queue*|*Killed*|*Ignored*|*Errors*|*Notes*|*History*|*Flow*|"
  format="| [[$topic][$formfield(BatchCode) $formfield(BatchDate) $formfield(BatchNumber) $formfield(BatchLocation)]] | $formfield(BatchValue) | $formfield(BatchCurrencies) | $formfield(BatchSizes) | $formfield(BatchCount) | $formfield(BatchToQueue) | $formfield(BatchKilled) | $formfield(BatchIgnored) | <div style='background-color:#$percntCALC{$SET(dat,$formfield(BatchDate))$SET(pdat,$formfield(BatchProcessDate))$SET(age,$EVAL($percnt$formfield(BatchCode)_days$percnt))$IF($EXACT($percntWORKFLOWSTATE{\"$topic\"}$percnt,CHECKED),FAF0D4,$IF($GET(age)>=0,ff3300,$IF($GET(age)>=-2,ff9933,66cc33)))}$percnt'>$formfield(BatchErrors)&nbsp;</div> | $formfield(BatchOperators) | $formfield(BatchActivities) | <form name=\"Edit\" action=\"%SCRIPTURLPATH{edit}%/%WEB%/\"> <input type=\"hidden\" name=\"action\" value=\"form\"/> <input type=\"hidden\" name=\"topic\" value=\"$topic\"/> <input type=\"hidden\" name=\"redirectto\" value=\"%TOPIC%?%QUERYSTRING{encode="url"}%\"/> <input type=\"image\" src=\"%ICONURL{pencil}%\" alt=\"Edit Form\" /> </form> $formfield(BatchNotes) | $percntWORKFLOWHISTORY{\"$topic\"}$percnt | $percntWORKFLOWTRANSITION{\"$topic\" redirectto=\"%TOPIC%?%QUERYSTRING{encode="url"}%\"}$percnt |"

That helps a little, but the format parameter still covers multiple lines and is still hard to follow.

Now we could use the standard Foswiki line continuation, but you do not get full control of spacing and you cannot achieve the result you want. In the example above, which creates a table, one possible problem is having cell values centred instead of right justified.

This is when the ability to cleanly separate comes into its own. This is achieved by using the +"more" option to break a parameter into appropriate pieces, we can now transform the above to:
  type="query"
  nonoise="on"
  web="Batch"
  header=""
        +"|*Batch Code*"
        +"|*Batch Value*"
        +"|*Currencies*"
        +"|*Sizes*"
        +"|*Count*"
        +"|*To Queue*"
        +"|*Killed*"
        +"|*Ignored*"
        +"|*Errors*"
        +"|*Notes*"
        +"|*History*"
        +"|*Flow*"
        +"|"
  format=""
        +"| [[$topic][$formfield(BatchCode) $formfield(BatchDate) $formfield(BatchNumber) $formfield(BatchLocation)]]"
        +"| $formfield(BatchValue) "
        +"| $formfield(BatchCurrencies) "
        +"| $formfield(BatchSizes) "
        +"| $formfield(BatchCount) "
        +"| $formfield(BatchToQueue) "
        +"| $formfield(BatchKilled) "
        +"| $formfield(BatchIgnored) "
        +"| <div style='background-color:#"
        +"$percntCALC{"
        +"$SET(dat,$formfield(BatchDate))"
        +"$SET(pdat,$formfield(BatchProcessDate))"
        +"$SET(age,$EVAL($percnt$formfield(BatchCode)_days$percnt))"
        +"$IF($EXACT($percntWORKFLOWSTATE{\"$topic\"}$percnt,CHECKED),FAF0D4,"
        +"$IF($GET(age)>=0,ff3300,$IF($GET(age)>=-2,ff9933,66cc33)))}"
        +"$percnt'>$formfield(BatchErrors)&nbsp;</div> "
        +"| $formfield(BatchOperators) "
        +"| $formfield(BatchActivities) "
        +"| <form name=\"Edit\" action=\"%SCRIPTURLPATH{edit}%/%WEB%/\">"
        +"<input type=\"hidden\" name=\"action\" value=\"form\"/>"
        +"<input type=\"hidden\" name=\"topic\" value=\"$topic\"/>"
        +"<input type=\"hidden\" name=\"redirectto\" value=\"%TOPIC%?%QUERYSTRING{encode="url"}%\"/>"
        +"<input type=\"image\" src=\"%ICONURL{pencil}%\" alt=\"Edit Form\" /> </form> $formfield(BatchNotes) "
        +"| $percntWORKFLOWHISTORY{\"$topic\"}$percnt "
        +"| $percntWORKFLOWTRANSITION{\"$topic\" redirectto=\"%TOPIC%?%QUERYSTRING{encode="url"}%\"}$percnt "
        +"|"

Note the use of + to concatenate all the pieces of the format and header parameters together. Also note that each piece is of the form +"more" and as that is quoted you have full control of the contents. This is especially true for those all important spaces — you'll see some pieces have a trailing space and some do not.

TIP parameter="value" +" and more" — is quite valid on one line if its useful

ALERT! parameter="1" +"2" gives you "12" not "3"

Both the header and format parameters above start each table cell on a separate line. This makes it a little easier to scan the topic text the match the cell positions and check they line up (i.e. the Header cell #n will match the contents from Format cell #n).

Another trick used above for easier maintenance is to initialise a parameter to "" and then add the pieces on separate lines. (In the example we are dealing with table cells hence "|", on a separate line, is used as an end of row marker.) This helps by allowing you to cut and paste whole lines, representing cells, into different column positions without concern as to whether or not it's the 1st column, last column or one in the middle because they have an identical structure.

Nonetheless, keeping the header of a table column separate from the format of each cell in the SEARCH can still be troublesome especially as the number of columns and/or complexity of header and footer cells grow.

To remedy that the param1+="value1" param2="value2" param1+="more1" param2+="more2" can be used. Not that the pieces of different parameters can now be intermingled in whatever way you need to make the macro easier to read. For example we can transform the above to:
  type="query"
  nonoise="on"
  web="Batch"

  header+="|*Control record*"
  format+="| <span style=\"display:none;\">"
         +"$formfield(BatchNumber) $formfield(BatchLocation) "
         +"$percntCALC{$SUBSTRING($topic,13,3)}$percnt $formfield(BatchDate) "
         +"!$formfield(BatchCode)"
         +"</span>"
         +"<a id=\"$topic\"/>[[$topic]]"

  header+="|*Batch Value*"
  format+="|  $formfield(BatchValue) "

  header+="|*Batch Curr- encies*"
  format+="| $formfield(BatchCurrencies) "

  header+="|*Success*"
  format+="|  $formfield(BatchCount) "

  header+="|*To Queue*"
  format+="|  $formfield(BatchToQueue) "

  header+="|*Killed*"
  format+="|  $formfield(BatchKilled) "

  header+="|*Ignored*"
  format+="|  $formfield(BatchIgnored) "

  header+="|*Batch Size*"
  format+="|  $formfield(BatchSizes) "

  header+="|*Batch Errors*"
  format+="| <div style='background-color:#"
         +"$percntCALC{$SET(dat,$formfield(BatchDate))"
         +"$SET(pdat,$formfield(BatchProcessDate))"
         +"$SET(age,$EVAL($percnt$formfield(BatchCode)_days$percnt))"
         +"$IF($EXACT($percntWORKFLOWSTATE{\"$topic\"}$percnt,CHECKED),FAF0D4,"
         +"$IF($GET(age)>=0,ff3300,$IF($GET(age)>=-2,ff9933,66cc33)))}$percnt'>"
         +"$formfield(BatchErrors) </div> "

  header+="|*Batch Oper- ators*"
  format+="| $formfield(BatchOperators) "

  header+="|*Batch Acti- vities*"
  format+="| $formfield(BatchActivities) "

  header+="|*Batch Notes*"
  format+="| <form name=\"Edit\" action=\"%SCRIPTURLPATH{edit}%/%WEB%/\">"
         +"<input type=\"hidden\" name=\"action\" value=\"form\"/>"
         +"<input type=\"hidden\" name=\"topic\" value=\"$topic\"/>"
         +"<input type=\"hidden\" name=\"redirectto\" value=\"%TOPIC%?%QUERYSTRING%#$topic\"/>"
         +"<input type=\"image\" src=\"%ICONURL{pencil}%\" alt=\"Edit Form\" /> </form> $formfield(BatchNotes)"

  header+="|*Status History*"
  format+="| $percntWORKFLOWHISTORY{\"$topic\"}$percnt "

  header+="|*Change Status*"
  format+="| $percntWORKFLOWTRANSITION{\"$topic\" redirectto=\"%TOPIC%?%QUERYSTRING%#$topic\"}$percnt "

  header+="|"
  format+="|"

There is no guesswork (or cell counting) required to work out which cell header matches which format cell. Also note how this enables you to better manage table layouts by keeping the coding for each column together and in turn the easy ability to move a column into other positions by cut and paste.

The 1st parameter in a macro does not have to be named, e.g %MACRO{"I'm the first"}%. How can you extend such a value with name+="more" when it has no name? Well actually it does and it's name is _DEFAULT so you can have %MACRO{"I'm the first" type="X" _DEFAULT+=", with seconds"}%. Some macros may give you an alternative name to use, e.g. %SEARCH allows search i.e. %SEARCH{search="find him" type="literal" search+=" and her"}%. In this situation it is better to use one or the other and not both as that could lead to confusion. In the case of %SEARCH if you use both then this macro will ignore search and use _DEFAULT, so take care.

The following is a working example using the Foswiki FAQ topics follows. You can use this to create yourself a Sandbox topic to try out the + and += options to experiment with ways to make macros easier to read.
%SEARCH{"form.name ~ 'FAQForm'"
  type="query"
  web="System"
  nonoise="on"

  header+="|*Title*"
  format+="|$formfield(TopicTitle)"

  header+="|*Topic*"
  format+="|$web.$topic"

  header+="|*Summary*"
  format+="|$formfield(TopicSummary)"

  header+="|*Related Topics*"
  format+="|$formfield(RelatedTopics)"

  header+="|"
  format+="|"
}%

This gives:
Title Topic Summary Related Topics
Creating applications with DataForms FAQAnApplicationWithWikiForm How can I create a simple data form based application? UserDocumentationCategory
Deleting and renaming topics FAQDeleteOrRenameATopic How do I delete or rename a topic? UserDocumentationCategory
Deleting and renaming attachments FAQDeleteOrRenameAnAttachment How do I delete or rename a file attachment? UserDocumentationCategory
Get Foswiki FAQDownloadSources I would like to install Foswiki on my server. Can I get the source? AdminDocumentationCategory
Explanation of Foswiki's repRev feature FAQEditDoesNotIncreaseTheRevision Why does the topic revision not increase when I edit a topic? UserDocumentationCategory
Foswiki software license FAQGnuGeneralPublicLicense Foswiki has a GPL (GNU General Public License). What is GPL? UserDocumentationCategory
HiddenUsersAndGroups FAQHiddenUsersAndGroups How to hide groups and users from common view VarGROUPINFO, AccessControl
Rebuilding WikiUsers topic FAQRebuildingWikiUsersTopic How can I re-build my WikiUsers topic? Foswiki:Support.Faq27, TopicUserMappingContrib, WikiUsers, AdminDocumentationCategory
Fixing broken %SEARCH caused by faulty configuration. FAQSearchDoesNotWork I've problems with the WebSearch. There is no Search Result on any inquiry. By clicking the Index topic it's the same problem. AdminDocumentationCategory
How simultaneous edits are handled in Foswiki FAQSimultaneousEdits What happens if two or more users try to edit the same topic simultaneously? UserDocumentationCategory
System.FAQTemplate
Troubleshooting Extensions FAQTroubleshootingExtensions A plugin I installed is not working. How can I troubleshoot it? Foswiki:Support.Faq31, InstalledPlugins, AdminDocumentationCategory
Definition of "WikiWiki" FAQWhatIsWikiWiki So what is this WikiWiki thing exactly? WelcomeGuest, GoodStyle, FrequentlyAskedQuestions, WikiCulture


Related Topics: MacrosQuickReference, PreferenceSettings, UserDocumentationCategory
Topic revision: r1 - 09 Jan 2016, ProjectContributor - This page was cached on 08 Dec 2016 - 23:02.

This site is powered by FoswikiCopyright © by the contributing authors. All material on this site is the property of the contributing authors.
Ideas, requests, problems regarding Foswiki? Send feedback