How to Install CPAN Modules
CPAN (Comprehensive Perl Archive Network) is a large repository of Perl modules. Standard Perl already has many CPAN libraries pre-installed.
The Foswiki package contains most required non-standard CPAN modules. Usually you have to install a few extra CPAN modules to use all the features in Foswiki. If you install additional plugins you might need to install additional CPAN modules. This guide tells you how to do that.
For building the CPAN modules from sources it is assumed that you have a fully working Perl and C development environment (including a C compiler and make tool) - but you may have much easier alternatives. This is not required if you can install the libraries as packages (rpm, deb, etc.)
What Do I Need?
These are the CPAN modules that you are recommended to install
CGI::Session - Needed for Foswiki's session feature which is really a must have
Error - Needed if you later want to develop plugins. It is also distributed with Foswiki but the author has experienced lots of trouble with the build script that builds plugins which sometimes cannot find this library. By adding it to the site Perl library you avoid this kind of trouble.
FreezeThaw - an indirectly needed module used by other modules.
GD - Used by the plugins that can produce graphics such as Foswiki:Plugins.ChartPlugin. It requires that lib gd is installed. If your choice of installation does not include you simply need to install the rpms gd and gd-devel. They are both on the CDs or DVD.
HTML::Tree - Needed by some popular plugins
Time-modules (Time::CTime, Time::DaysInMonth, Time::JulianDay, Time::ParseDate, Time::Timezone) also needed by some popular plugins.
This list may not be complete. For example if RHEL/Fedora/CentOS Linux was not installed as "Software Development" and "WebServer" you may need to install additional modules.
When you run
in the section "CGI Setup" there is a subsection "Perl modules" which lists the version of the installed modules and also the missing modules.
Which CPAN Libraries Do I Have?
To test if you have a specific CPAN modules installed, follow this easy method:
This is best explained by example:
- To check for perl module FileHandle:
perl -e 'use FileHandle; print $FileHandle::VERSION."\n"'
- To check perl module Time::Local:
perl -e 'use Time::Local; print $Time::Local::VERSION."\n"'
If you think a perl module is installed, but the system claims it can't find it, then it's worth reviewing HowFoswikiFindsPerlLibraries
to help understand what is going on.
Install CPAN Modules using the package management system
If your system is one of the most popular Linux distributions then by far the easiest way to install additional CPAN modules is to use the package management system.
For distributions like RedHat, CentOS, Fedora, Mandriva, etc. most CPAN libraries are available as RPM packages. If you need a CPAN library called CPAN:CGI::Session
then the naming convention normally used is perl-CGI-Session. Not all the CPAN libraries can be found on your CD/DVD or in the official distribution package repositories. But there are many additional repositories that carry nearly all the CPAN libraries. E.g. Dag Wieers
has all the RPMs you will ever need for CPAN libs for the RedHat/Fedora/Centos family.
For Debian based distributions, including Ubuntu, the naming convention is a little different. For example, the CGI::Session library is called libcgi-session-perl. The good thing with Debian is that they carry most of the CPAN libraries on the official package repositories so once you know what they are called they are just a simple
installs the CGI::Session module from CPAN. You can also use GUI tools such as Synaptic to find and install such modules. See InstallationOnDebian
you might find that by default CGI v3.37, 3.43 or 3.47 are installed. These versions, according to Foswiki documentation, must be avoided. One possible solution is to install
, which currently replaces the default version by a supported one (2011-0-10). To do so, type
sudo apt-get install libcgi-pm-perl
from the command line or install it with your favorite package manager.
Gentoo has ebuilds for the CPAN. E.g. CGI::Session is called CGI-Session. See http://packages.gentoo.org/packages/?category=dev-perl
for an overview of Perl CPAN related ebuilds.
has a detailed description of which CPAN libraries are required in addition to the ones that are installed by default and the exact method how to install them. This covers RedHat, Centos and Fedora. If you have another RPM based distribution this is also a very good resource.
Install CPAN modules into your local Perl library using CPAN
By default, you need to have admin (root) privileges to install Perl modules - see the next section if you don't.
Installation is straightforward if your machine has Internet access. It is assumed that you have the CPAN perl module installed (this is normally the case). Steps:
Invoke the CPAN shell:
# perl -MCPAN -e shell
If you run this for the first time it asks you some configuration questions. In most cases it works just fine if you tell it to "go figure it out yourself." Once configured you will see a
The first thing you should do is to upgrade your CPAN:
cpan> install Bundle::CPAN
Once ready, type:
cpan> reload cpan
Now it is time to install the additional modules you need. For example, to retrieve, configure, and install the
cpan> install DateTime::TimeZone
If needed, you will be prompted to install other modules this module depends on.
Setting up a private CPAN library - without admin privileges
If you don't have admin privileges and want to install required CPAN modules locally, this is how you do it. The instructions are written for Unix/Linux users, such as shared web hosting users, or users of an intranet Unix/Linux server.
This page will help you create a private CPAN library. You can put your private library anywhere; just type in the path you want to use below. Remember that the webserver user has to be able to find and read the path, though!
Now start the CPAN shell in your home directory:
$ cd ~
$ perl -MCPAN -e shell
You can just answer "no" to manual configuration, and wait for the noise to die down, or you can answer "yes" and step through the questions. You should accept the defaults for most questions, except the ones about your mirror locations.
Now type the following at the
prompt (note that each line starts with
all others are wrapping):
: at any point you can use
to review your options and
for (limited) help. In
(or your shell's equivalent), set
Now, when you run
perl -MCPAN -e shell
, any modules you install will be installed to your private library directory.
: several people can all share the same CPAN library; they can all follow the instructions above.
: If you do not get the
prompt and instead get error messages about permissions failures creating
, you need to copy
and edit it: where it contains
you need to put the full path to the .cpan directory in your home directory, eg
Using your private CPAN repository in Foswiki
CPAN libraries in Foswiki's
) directory are automatically detected and used by Foswiki; you don't have to do anything else!
If, however, you've installed shared CPAN libraries elsewhere, you have to point to it. Update
bin/LocalLib.cfg in your Foswiki installation:
@localPerlLibPath = ( "/home/foswiki/lib/CPAN/lib" );
If you are trying to cause an upgraded version of a CPAN module to be used by Foswiki, but can't upgrade because of a situation such as a hosting provider, you must first create the private CPAN repository (preferably use
foswiki/lib/CPAN/lib) and then you need to "trick" Foswiki into using it before the default locations. The
localPerlLibPath value will be appended to Perl's @INC array; existing paths will take precedence, so it won't work. In order to put a path at the beginning of the @INC array, you need to put it in
$CPANBASE. Add the following line to
bin/LocalLib.cfg right after
$CPANBASE = "/full/path/to/foswiki/lib/CPAN/lib";
Installing CPAN modules manually
If you are behind a hefty firewall and cannot run CPAN and your Unix machine does not have ready made packages available the method is to manually install the package. Some packages contains binary compiled modules and requires a fully working Perl and C development environment (including a C compiler and make tool).
First we download them. The most common ones you need are here. (pick the latest version if there is a newer)
Then we install them. This is done more or less the same way with all of them. At least one module depends on FreezeThaw so install that first.
- Untar the package in some temporary directory with
tar -zxvf filename.tar.gz
- Run these commands (look in the readme file - maybe there are extra steps
- You can delete the entire directory with the sources afterwards if you desire.
- Windows users - download Nmake from microsoft website, and use 'nmake' instead of make in the above set of commands
Above process is slightly different on Solaris 10
(onwards) compared to Linux. Instead of running
you must run
. Apart from this all is the same. See SolarisInstallCookbookPerlModules
for full explanation.
ActiveState has provided compiled modules that make CPAN installation very easy:
- Browse to the ActivePerl PPM archives
- Select your ActivePerl version (8xx means perl 5.8)
- Select your operating system. This procedure has been successfully used to extend the set of CPAN modules provided with the Windows Installer for TWiki 4.2.0. However ActiveState also provides downloads for Darwin, HP-UX, Linux, and Solaris.
- Download the module(s) you need. File are named
The rest of these steps only apply to Windows downloads from ActiveState
- Extract the ZIP(s) to a directory on the server, e.g., . Warnings about overwriting README files during extraction can be safely ignored. The installer expects the ZIP to be extracted directly in that directory, and not in sub-directories for each module. So the directory will contain
*.ppd files and a directory called which contains
- Start the GUI for the Perl Package Manager that was installed with ActivePerl: i.e., Start > Run... > ppm
- In the program Preferences, check that Areas points to your Perl install. "Add Repository" for the directory with the extracted modules.
- The modules should now appear in the list. Right-click + Install to mark them to be installed. Click as many as needed, and it will check the pre-requisites as it goes.
- Under the File menu, select "Run Marked Actions". Check for errors, and that's it: no need to restart Apache or re-Configure plug-ins.
Unfortunately a PPM package isn't always available (and I couldn't get
to work). In those cases:
- Open the URL http://trouchelle.com/ppm/
- Download the PPD (IE downloads it as XML, just rename it)
- Also download the ZIP from the location specified in the PPD file
- Extract the ZIP and edit
install-nomake to change the shebang from
#!D:/perl/bin/perl (or wherever you perl is)
- At a command prompt (the
-s flag, described in the comments of
install-nomake, installs it to a remote directory of your choosing):
perl install-nomake -s D:\Perl\site
details a mechanism to mirror the latest version of CPAN modules. this will grab all
the CPAN modules and create a local mirror.
- 07 Jul 2007
Debian also has dh-make-perl ; if the repos don't have the cpan module, you can always make it yourself. needs fakeroot, a bit of sense, and disk space (also you'll need to configure CPAN via the way mentioned above).
- 20 Sep 2007
looks useful - enables Ubuntu as well as Debian users to create .debs that are easily tracked through APT - see http://www.debian-administration.org/articles/78
this dh-make-perl tutorial.
- 20 Sep 2007
For windows, on 64 bit systems, use dmake: http://tools.openoffice.org/dmake/dmake_4.6.zip
- 16 Dec 2011
I've recently discovered CPAN Minus (cpanm)
which appears to be a lighter-weight option for installing needed CPAN modules in local directories. It takes less overhead than CPAN proper so is more compatible with shared hosting.
- 15 Aug 2013